My first computer ran with a single 5V supply to the chips - it was a 6502-based Compukit, an unlicensed copy of Ohio Scientific’s Superboard. It had 4K or 8K of SRAM, in the form of 512x4 bit chips. This was the late 70s.
It struck me recently that the single-supply computer was a relatively limited phenomenon. Earlier than my machine, it was common to need a 12v supply or a negative rail, or even both. (Even earlier, the valve/tube based computers had quite a spectrum of supply voltages.) Later than my machine, there would commonly be a negative rail for audio purposes, or a 12v, or both. Even later, we start to see 3V or even lower voltages, often with 5V as well.
So: which early or late machines needed and used only a single supply rail? (If you like, discount any higher voltages needed for a built-in display.)
Here’s a Compukit - you’ll notice it was sold as a single board, you had to make your own case and PSU: